The Pedagogy Underpinning The Big Picture
Written by Peter Lee
The Big Picture approach aims to enhance regionalisation through significantly increasing students’ opportunities to build relationships with teachers and other significant adults both in the student’s circle of influence and in the community. The ‘Big Picture’ approach will allow for
· face to face contact with Learning advisors
· mentorships both formal and informal
· cooperative learning
· direct teaching
We know from the research around Russell Bishop’s work with Te Kotahitanga schools that successful teachers focus on establishing effective relationships with students that are respectful, genuine, caring and culturally located. These teachers hold high expectations for students and use teaching strategies that assist students to learn. Learning is emotional as well as cognitive and relationships underpin student motivation and confidence to learn
However relationships alone will not make the difference. Quality teaching needs to be present.
The strategies shown to be particularly effective with Maori students (but in fact research indicates all students)
· Cooperative learning
· Effective feedback, feed forward
· Challenging goals
· Differentiated learning
· Effective questioning (students forming questions)
It is clear that our strategy around regionalisation and the Big Picture presents us with an opportunity to enhance relationships and apply more effective evidenced based teaching strategies proven to make a difference for students.
Most teacher interventions make a difference as the attached list from John Hattie’ work indicates. However clearly we need to focus on those that make a bigger difference!
I have highlighted the teaching strategies we are best able to apply using Regionalisation, the Big Picture Approach and with learning at a distance
What has the greatest influence on student learning?
The work of John Hattie, Professor of Education University of Auckland is very informative in this respect. He has analysed 200,000 ‘effect-sizes’ from 180,000 studies representing 50+million students and covering almost every method of innovation. This is just a summary, download Hattie's full paper 'Influences on Student Learning' from this page on his site:
He says ‘effect sizes’ are much the best way of answering the question ‘what has the greatest influence on student learning’. An effect-size of 1.0 is typically associated with:
· advancing learner’s achievement by one year, or improving the rate of learning by 50%,
· a correlation between some variable (e.g., amount of homework) and achievement of approximately .50.
· average students receiving that treatment exceeding 84% of students not receiving that treatment.
· A two grade leap in NCEA, e.g. from An achieved to Excellence C to an A grade.
An effect size of 1.0 is clearly enormous! (It is defined as an increase of one standard deviation)
Most innovations that are introduced in schools have an effect size of around .4. This is the benchmark figure and provides a "standard" from which to judge effects.
Most educational research on teaching effectiveness has been done in schools in Amercia
Comparison points for Effect sizes
When looking at the effect sizes that follow, compare them with these:
student maturation .10
a teacher in front of a classroom .24
innovations in schooling .40
Professor John Hattie’s average effect sizes.
Effect sizes above 0.4 are above the bold line. These are above the average for educational research. The ‘number of effects’ column gives the number of effect sizes of this type that have been averaged to create the ‘effect size’ in the next column.
Mean effect-sizes from over 500 meta-analyses of various influences to achievement. Professor John Hattie
Influence No. of effects Effect-Size
Feedback 139 1.13
Students’ prior cognitive ability 896 1.04
Instructional quality 22 1.00
Instructional quantity 80 .84
Direct instruction 253 .82
Cooperative Learning 241 .76
Acceleration 162 .72
Home factors 728 .67
Remediation/feedback 146 .65
Students disposition to learn 93 .61
Class environment 921 .56
Challenge of Goals 2703 .52
Bilingual programs 285 .51
Peer tutoring 125 .50
Mastery learning 104 .50
Teacher in-service education 3912 .49
Parent involvement 339 .46
Homework 110 .43
Questioning 134 .41
OVERALL EFFECTS 500,000+ .40
Peers 122 .38
Advance organizers 387 .37
Simulation & games 111 .34
Computer-assisted instruction 566 .31
Instructional media 4421 .30
Testing 1817 .30
Aims & policy of the school 542 .24
Affective attributes of students 355 .24
Calculators 231 .24
Physical attributes of students 905 .21
Learning hierarchies 24 .19
Programmed instruction 220 .18
Audio-visual aids 6060 .16
Individualisation 630 .14
Finances/money 658 .12
Behavioural objectives 111 .12
Team teaching 41 .06
Ability grouping/Streaming 3385 .05
Physical attributes of the school 1850 -.05
Mass media 274 -.12
Retention 861 -.15